# Write an essay on income and cross elasticities of demand

If the price of butter rises, it will lead to increase in the demand for jam. The cross elasticity of demand is the relation between percentage change in the quantity demanded of a good to the percentage change in the price of a related good. In the first case, we will be in a position to charge a high price for our products and in the latter case we will be paying less for the goods obtained from the other country.

Or if they buy chips, Doritos or Lays. D1 is the less elastic demand curve which sets the price P3Q3 with the supply curve S1 after the levy of the excise duty.

The concept of elasticity of demand has great practical importance in analysing some of the complex problems of international trade, such as the volume of exports and imports, the terms of trade, the gains from trade, the effects of tariffs, and the balance of payments.

For instance, the domestic demand for electricity being less elastic, the State Electricity Boards charge high rates. If an increase in income leads to an increased demand for a commodity, the income elasticity coefficient Ey is positive.

If two goods are complementary jointly demandeda rise in the price of one leads to a fall in the demand for the other.

Panel E shows a vertical income demand curve Dy with zero elasticity. A rise or fall in the prices of commodities will reduce or increase the demand on their part.

If the demand for labour in an industry is elastic, strikes and other trade union tactics will not be of any avail in raising wages. Ey is negative and the commodity is an inferior good.

Cross Elasticity of Demand: How guaranteed minimum prices help the farmers in selling their farm products without incurring a loss in total income is illustrated in Figure Proportion of Income Spent: Over the long-run, the consumption patterns of the people may change with changes in income with the result that a luxury today may become a necessity after the lapse of a few years.

The coefficient of income elasticity at point B is This shows that the income elasticity of E2 curve over much of its range is larger than zero but smaller than 1. On any two points of a demand curve, the elasticity coefficients are likely to be different depending upon the method of computation.

The cross elasticity between butter and jam may not be the same as the cross elasticity of jam to butter. If the price of any of these articles rises, people will postpone their consumption. Generally, cross elasticity for substitutes is positive, but in exceptional circumstances it may also be negative.

If the two points which form the arc on the demand curve are so close that they almost merge into each other, the numerical value of arc elasticity equals the numerical value of point elasticity. When a demand is elastic, it means even a small change in price can cause a large change in the quantities consumers purchase.

The formula for this is: If the frequency is greater, income elasticity will be high because there will be a general tendency to buy comforts and luxuries. The elasticity of demand of the second commodity depends upon the elasticity of demand of the major commodity.

In anticipation of a bumper wheat harvest, the government fixes OP1 as the minimum price of wheat for the current year. As a result, their demand will decrease, and vice versa.

In the Determination of Prices of Joint Products: The coefficient of income elasticity of demand at point A is This shows that the curve is income elastic over much of its range. Suppose that the straight line demand curve DC in Figure 3 is 6 centimeters.

But at this price, the quantity supplied will be OQ1 and the quantity demanded OQ2. There are certain commodities which are jointly demanded, such as car and petrol, pen and ink, bread and jam, etc. But factories and other manufacturing concerns are charged lower rates because the authorities are aware of the presence of good substitutes like coal, oil or diesel power.

The gains from trade depend, among others, on the elasticity of demand. In such a situation, the farmers will be the losers, because the total revenue obtained by them from the bumper crop is less than that from a small crop. Demand is less elastic if with the fall in price, the total expenditure falls and with the rise in price the total expenditure rises.

In Figure 13, we have explained income elasticity of demand with the help of linear Engel curves.If the change in the quantity demanded is greater than 1 the demand is elastic. Elasticity of demand is calculated by ED=quantity demanded/decrease in price.

If you reduce the price of milk by 6%, and that causes an increase of quantity demanded by 9% the demand for milk is elastic (ED/ = ). When the demand is elastic, a producer has to produce different quantity of product and fixed quantity when the demand is inelastic.

2. 2. It helps in fixing the prices of different goods: When the demand is elastic, the producer will change the price of the product according to change of demand and will approach the price decrease policy. When a demand is elastic, it means even a small change in price can cause a large change in the quantities consumers purchase.

(McConnell, pg. 77) So for example in an elastic demand if you reduce the price of a good the demand will increase a large amount and revenue then increases. And cross-price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of demand for good X following a change in the price of a related good Y.

For complementary goods, the two goods are in joint demand. That is, the relationship between the price of good Y and quantity demanded for good X will look like a normal demand curve.

Explain what is meant by the terms price elasticity, income elasticity and cross elasticity of demand and discuss the main determinants of each of these.3/5(1).

In this essay we will discuss about Price Elasticity of Demand. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Price Elasticity 2. Methods of Measuring Price Elasticity of Demand 3. Importance of the Concept of Price Elasticity 4.

Cross Elasticity of Demand 5. Concept of Income Elasticity of Demand 6. Factors Affecting Elasticity of Demand.

Write an essay on income and cross elasticities of demand
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