The sexual activity is often violent, and this can cause internal damage, destroying the normal vaginal and infection barriers and putting children at greater risk than adults for contracting sexually transmitted disease Lemmey and Tice Understanding Sexual Abuse, 2nd ed.
Many of the children interviewed were introverted and reluctant to talk about themselves and their health problems, especially with unfamiliar people. As a young female aboriginal sex worker said: A developmental factor that may keep young people working on the streets is the social group in which their need to have peers is met.
Review of literature on prostitution New Zealand Evening Post article More problematic, however, are the risks that this double stigma implies, particularly the dangers of being assaulted or raped. Pornography and Prostitution, mimeo, New York. Empowerment models of social work are appropriate for young people whose experiences have left them with a sense of powerlessness and dependence on abusive lifestyles.
Many have reported feeling most powerless in their interactions with social service agencies Webber Saunders Sex For Favours: In Canada, aboriginal boys and girls also make up a greater percentage of children involved in commercial sexual exploitation than would be expected by their numbers in the general population, and this is also seen in other colonised nations Save the Children Fund In the Evening Post a spokesperson for Queer Youth In Schools said teens were intimidated by the process, and were often ashamed to explain their circumstances.
A formal scheme would ensure caregivers had no criminal convictions as well as providing them with training and funding. Networking and co-ordination among service providers, the government and law enforcement agencies should be made part of their routine operations, and should also form an integral part of any action plan to address child sexual abuse and sexual exploitation.
In some way the risks of this work may fulfil urges to self-injury or at least self-distraction. Workers in services for youth at risk are aware of significant and increasing numbers of young people selling sex, commonly for survival, and research with adult sex workers indicates that significant proportions commence sex work as children.
However, people who work with these youth report a high incidence of sex work among transgender teens. The approach needs to be non-judgemental and person-centred, enabling people to regain a sense of control over their experiences and helping them to increase their options for the future.
Due to a desire to shift the focus from sex to exploitation, commercial sexual exploitation has sometimes been included under child labour provisions, but all these definitions pose limitations Kelly et al.
These beliefs are reinforced by media promotion of youth, childhood and innocence as sexually desirable, assisting the sex offender to accommodate the youthful victim in his repertoire Saphira It is seen as more dangerous to work on the streets than in massage parlours Plumridge and Abeland it is on the streets that many children begin sex work.
Characteristics of early adolescents may make them especially susceptible to maladaptive behaviour Unger et al.
Child Youth and Family Services, the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective, Wellington City Council and the police have been helping to establish a scheme, which could involve at-risk teens being placed temporarily with gay foster parents of the opposite sex.
Six of the ten street workers in the study were working on the streets before they were 15, three others started at 16 or 17 …. They left home very early due to sexual abuse, and were vulnerable to exploitation in their needs for survival and affection.
In the same way, dominant groups within a culture can sexually exploit children from stigmatised groups without it interfering with their view of themselves as moral and good.
These young women recounted how they had left school and family and lived hand-to-mouth, sometimes literally on the streets, living rough in the open, under bridges, in abandoned buildings with no more than a mattress and a blanket Jeannette or even crawling into clothing collection bins Suzanne.
Janis and Heid-Bracey have identified three broad categories of child prostitutes: However, the emotional risks and damage may be greater than the physical. Through family planning, a decline in fertility has made it easier for parents to educate their children.
It is among this plethora of projects that multi-agency cooperation needs to occur. The motives and preferences of the clients of under-age prostitutes defy generalisation. Prevention and intervention must take into account the traumatic damage from family life that has made children flee to the streets, the subsequent violence and trauma on the street, and the likelihood of young prostitutes suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder Briere ; as well as the attitudes of the agencies the sex worker may have to deal with.
The homeless teens he had encountered were mainly from the transsexual community. New Zealand law recognises the vulnerability of underyear-olds by making it an offence to employ women under 18 years of age in massage parlours Massage Parlours Actbut there are no such restrictions and regulations on rap parlours, escort agencies and other ad hoc sex industry businesses.
In New Zealand there is growing evidence of a relationship between colonisation, racial stigma, childhood abuse and neglect, and under-age, gay and transgender prostitution personal communication, Te Aronga Hou and New Zealand Family Planning Association workers Te Aronga Hou provides an outreach service, offering support, advice and condoms, together with an advocacy service, a training programme for young people who wish to investigate other options to sex work, and a community education programme.Because of the relative lack of public discussion until recently on the issue of child prostitution, in New Zealand and elsewhere, there has been a paucity of systematic research or literature on this topic.
Chapter – II Review of Literature Introduction This chapter is meant to review the available literature by the following chronological order. The review covers the sources of trafficking i.e.
countries, regions and areas, prostitution, types of prostitutes, link between migration and prostitution, types of sex tourism and reasons for sex. Similar to primary research, development of the literature review requires four stages: Problem formulation—which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues?
Literature search—finding materials relevant to the subject being explored. prostitution law reform and considers evaluations of Australian prostitution law reform. The review gathers together studies and literature on the sex industry in New Zealand published prior to June What emerges from the account is a picture of the sex industry as a long-established feature of the New Zealand landscape.
This comprehensive review of current literature on human trafficking into and within the United States focuses on surveying what the social science or other literature has found about the issues of identifying and effectively serving trafficking victims.
It argues that whatever the power of personal experiences which incline a person towards prostitution, prostitution can still only be possible in specific cultural conditions.
The phenomenon of prostitution has the sexual double standard, poverty and an unequal labour market as prerequisites.Download