However, in recent years, historians belonging to the pseudo-secular school have been working overtime to bury these truths and give Aurangzeb a more acceptable face. This is the standard narrative of many Left-leaning historians who shut their eyes to historical truths and moulded history to suit their ideological predilections.
In other words, the assault on Indian civilisation was comprehensive and nothing was left out. Parallel pathways essays on hindu-muslim relations flags  were displayed in the city and Hindus were bullied.
Essays on Hindu-Muslim Relations Author: This is just a sample of the monumental disservice that historians of this ilk have done to our understanding of medieval history and thereafter, the historical background of Partition.
It features thirty contributions from leading experts in various fields and is divided into five sections: However, without passing any judgement on the motives behind those efforts, it must be noted that the aged Mughal ruler was aware of the fact that significant sections of the sepoys were Hindus.
Politics sometimes becomes entwined with religion as seems increasingly to be the case for the slain leader Benazir Bhutto whose popular veneration takes the appearance of a cult in her native Sind, where she even seems to take the place of some ancient, dimly remembered pre-Islamic feminine idols.
For that reason, a comparative reading of both works suggests interesting associations. This makes it hard to justify defining Hindu-Muslim relations during the war of independence in as, solidarity, which clearly was on display at every level It is undeniable that there were instances where both Hindus and Muslims responded to calls and successfully forged alliances both at military and civilian levels, but there is also significant evidence of religious tensions and bigotry leading to an inevitable conflict.
Fatwas  prohibiting social and business relations with Hindus were passed.
The producers of this counterfeit history have just one objective in mind — to denounce indigenous religions and culture, to eulogise religions imported into this land and to expurgate from history books all facts that show the latter in poor light.
Pakistan has almost achieved the ideal of many Muslim Parallel pathways essays on hindu-muslim relations and rulers of pre-British India who wished to extirpate idolatry from their kingdoms and yet the many painful consequences of its ambition to enshrine that Utopia are too well known to need recalling.
He heaped indignities on Hindus and Sikhs and some eminent historians like Jadunath Sarkar, RC Majumdar and Will Durant, who have remained true to their calling, have chronicled the many facets of his oppressive regime.
Fatwas were issued calling the uprising religious duty of all Muslims to fight the British  and restore Muslim rule. This onslaught, however, was not just confined to matters of religion.
Yet, apart from the millennial legacies of Hinduism, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism left by the ancient Indus valley Civilisation and the Gandharan, Achaemenid, Graeco-Bactrian, Scythian, Kushan and Hunnic dynasties which held sway in the land, much of Pakistan was ruled by Sikh kings in the 19th century and the Sikh Gurus had a deep spiritual and cultural interaction with Islamic scholars and princes.
Based on current events, the answer may be that, like the many states described by Meenakshi Jain in Pre-British India, Pakistan will disintegrate under the pressure of its inner contradictions unless it manages to remain in its present state as a de facto though unruly American protectorate.
Naturally the British took full advantage of the Hindu-Mussalman dissensions in order to bolster and prolong their rule. Gazis who had Parallel pathways essays on hindu-muslim relations from Tonk, a Muslim dominated area in Rajasthan, declared they will slaughter cows and kill Hindus before destroying the firangis.
Durre Ahmed, is perhaps the most evocative of the religious culture of the country as it highlights major popular icons: As these concepts were at the core of Islamic belief, there was little scope for harmony between Hindus and Muslims.
A logical extension of this spurious enterprise is to imagine Hindu-Muslim harmony before the advent of the British and blame the coloniser for the discord that emerged between the two communities in the 19th and 20th centuries leading to Partition and much else.
To face those threats, the Sultans in Delhi, on the advice of noted theologians such as Shah Waliullah customarily called for the help of their coreligionaries and kinsmen in Afghanistan and Iran. It extends to management of the present as well, with members of this school entrenching themselves in academia and institutions owing allegiance to those who are the prime beneficiaries of their spurious output and denying opportunities to those who oppose this disjunction between truth and history.
Hindus and Muslims lived amicably in undivided India until Britain colonised the country, promoted conflict between the two communities, pursued a policy of divide and rule and eventually presided over the division of the country before exiting from the subcontinent. These princely states remained until Indian Independence bastions of feudalism rooted in somewhat petrified foreign traditions, with few concessions to Indian local institutions, customs, languages and religions though Muslims constituted rather small minorities of their total populations, concentrated in the major cities and military forts qasbas whereas the rural landscape remained overwhelmingly Hindu.
Essays on Hindu-Muslim Relations Author: It may come as a surprise to many that Wahhabism, better known for its role in the overthrow of Ottoman rule in the Arabian peninsula and the foundation of the Saudi kingdom, played a major part in India where the British government saw it as a threat and a driving force behind the failed insurrection, whereby those Muslim revivalists aimed to restore an Islamic empire even though many were willing to make concessions to the Hindus in order to win their support.
That thereafter, this unity was undermined by the policies of the British leading eventually to Partition. Jain does not fail to point out that the relatively open-minded and inclusive policies of Akbar, - whose limits she illustrates with statistics showing that even he promoted relatively few Hindus to the upper levels of the civilian and military administration - were denounced as heretical not only by the ulema and Muslim nobles of the Empire but also, in more recent times, by Pakistani historians who held him responsible for failing to bring the majority of Indians into the Quranic faith.
Therefore insofar as there was cultural synthesis between imported and domestic elements, it was expressly shaped to enshrine the supremacy of the former over the latter.
In seven chapters, Meenakshi Jain paints a broad picture of Islam in India from the days of the first Arab and Turkic inroads in the 8th century AD, in the northwest of the subcontinent, which was many centuries later to become Pakistan, to the first half of the nineteenth century when declining regional kingdoms were gradually falling under the sway of the British East India Company which was hence inevitably drawn into the politics and conflicts between the Hindu and Muslim communities.
He knew only too well that any religious extremism upon their community would beget nothing but disaster for the uprising that he had reluctantly approved at the prospect of a revival of Mughal rule to its long lost position. One cannot but be reminded of the many similar endeavours of rulers in the course of almost a thousand years in Agra, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Lucknow, Hyderabad and Mysore, who aspired or claimed to rule over all India or even the world but could not, with few exceptions, keep control of their own realms for very long.
However, in recent years, historians belonging to the pseudo-secular school have been working overtime to bury these truths and give Aurangzeb a more acceptable face. There is also a vivid tradition of witchcraft, palmistry, astrology and divination much of it related to Hindu lore as in other Islamic countries despite the fact that orthodox Islam tends to frown on such beliefs.
These concepts also had a great bearing on how a succession of Muslim kings ran their kingdoms and the attitude of the Muslim elite in India.1Book Review PARALLEL PATHWAYS: ESSAYS ON HINDU MUSLIM RELATIONS Author: Meenakshi Jain Konark Publishers Pvt Ltd.
Jun 18, · PARALLEL PATHWAYS Essays on Hindu-Muslim Relations New Delhi: Konark Publishers Pvt Ltd. 21 thoughts on “ Hindu-Muslim tensions during the war of independence in ” Parag Tope says: Hindu-Muslim civilian relations is a secondary subject in the context ofand therefore was not a priority in ORL.
Dec 03, · Home > Indian History --The Blunt Truth, Islam in news, Quran - Explanation, Religion, Islam, Qur'an, baqarah, Bakarah, Cow, Koran, What is islam > Parallel Pathways: Essays on Hindu-Muslim Relations ().
Get this from a library! Parallel pathways: essays on Hindu-Muslim relations, [Meenakshi Jain; Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
Delhi Kendra.]. Dec 03, · The great divide: Hindu-Muslim Relations on the Indian subcontinent Discussion in ' Meenakshi Jain's book explains the leitmotif for Hindu-Muslim relations for over a millennium and demolishes the harmony' theory, writes A SURYA PRAKASH Parallel Pathways: Essays on Hindu-Muslim Relations () Author: Meenakshi Jain.
Journal of Indian Research (ISSN: ) Vol.1, No.4, October-December,BOOK REVIEW PARALLEL PATHWAYS: ESSAYS ON HINDU MUSLIM RELATIONS ().Download