Human cells normally contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. Imagine, a life-form resulting from the combination and fusing of the haploid sets from two sperms, or from a duplicated haploid set of one sperm. The mechanism is usually the reduplication of the paternal haploid set from a single sperm, but may also be the consequence of dispermic two sperm fertilization of the egg.
Normally, a complete hydatidiform mole may be first discovered by ultrasound examination. Pathology Persistent GTD can occur after any pregnancy.
A complete molar pregnancy is more likely to have this complication than a partial molar pregnancy. An adequate response is defined as at least a logarithmic fall in hCG after a course of chemotherapy. Other possibilities include failure of luteinizing hormone LH and pituitary sulfated hCG to appropriately stimulate the first stage of meiosis, as they should do as part of the multistep ovarian ovulation procedure.
This is the signal that drives growth and enzymatic invasion in pregnancy implantation see Chapter 3. There is also a risk of second tumours such as AML.
In both cases, the moles are diploid i. Hydatidiform mole essay forms two paternal origin pronucleuses, as would the haploid sets normally from a sperm and an ovum, and then forms a diploid fertilized being Figure 6. Hydatidiform mole essay complete hydatidiform mole is normally aborted and removed by dilation and curettage, commonly at or around weeks of gestation.
The uterus contains the products of two conceptions: All women are followed up with serum beta-hCG estimation after evacuation of a molar pregnancy to identify persistent disease.
The commonly used combination chemotherapy regimes are shown in Box It yields a snowflake-like pattern due to the cystic trophoblast tissue upon ultrasound. A second course of treatment is indicated if the hCG levels are stationary for three consecutive weeks, re-elevates or does not decline by one logarithmic fall within 18 days of completion of the first treatment.
The nucleus contains one maternal set of genes and two paternal sets. Cells divide first to 2 cells, 4 cells, 8 cells, 16 cells, and beyond, but how do we end up with a being that is only placenta tissue and no fetal tissue of any kind? It is possible that this cross-linking process fails in an anucleate ovum.
The zygote divides, forming 2 identical cells, 4 identical cells, 8 identical cells, and 16 identical cells in the normal way. No chromosomal element of this living being was shown to be of maternal origin or to come from the mother.
We introduce hydatidiform mole as a disease that creates a human monster. Persistent GTN can nearly always be successfully treated, most often with chemotherapy. This condition is named persistent trophoblastic disease PTD. It presents as hundreds of balls or bloody cysts, hygromatous cysts, as shown in Figure 6.
Methotrexate does not cause alopecia. In most pregnancies, the cross-linking of the ovum shell or zona pellucida by enzymes made by the cortical granules will prevent more than one sperm from penetrating the ovum. Each hygromatous cyst or ball arises by distention of the placental tissue by fluids.
Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Causes A molar pregnancy is caused by an abnormally fertilized egg. A complete hydatidiform mole takes on a unique anatomy of its own. A repeat molar pregnancy happens, on average, in 1 out of every women. The assessed incidence among tribal groups in Southeast Asia and Africa is estimated at 1 in pregnancies.
It is clearly by this process and failure of morula division that complete hydatidiform mole ends up as a mass of villous placental tissue. Many patients receive 1—3 cycles of chemotherapy after biochemical remission, depending on the risk category and the rate of reduction of hCG.
He or she may recommend waiting for six months to one year before trying to become pregnant. One of the biggest questions is what happens after a totally paternal or diandrogenous fertilized zygote is formed? There may also be more vomiting than would be expected hyperemesis.
Molar pregnancy in ultrasound Hydatidiform mole on CT, sagittal view Hydatidiform mole on CT, axial view The diagnosis is strongly suggested by ultrasound sonogrambut definitive diagnosis requires histopathological examination.Molar Pregnancy. A molar pregnancy which is medically known as a Hydatidiform mole is an abnormality of the placenta which is caused when the sperm fertilizes an egg without.
In contrast, a partial mole occurs when an egg is fertilized by two sperm or by one sperm which reduplicates itself yielding the genotypes of 69,XXY (triploid) or 92,XXXY (tetraploid). Complete hydatidiform moles have a higher risk of developing into choriocarcinoma — a malignant tumor of trophoblast cells — than do partial moles.
More Essay Examples on Pregnancy Rubric. It is for this reason that a post-operative full abdominal and chest x-ray will often be requested. In 2 to 3% of cases, hydatidiform moles may develop into choriocarcinoma, which is a malignant, rapidly-growing, and metastatic (spreading) form of cancer.
Molar pregnancy. Molar pregnancy (hydatidiform mole) is a non-malignant tumor that arises from the trophoblast in early pregnancy after an embryo fails to develop.
Invasive hydatidiform mole An invasive hydatidiform mole is defined by the presence of molar villi with associated trophoblastic cells in the myometrium and broad ligament, or at distant sites as the resulting sequela of a CHM or, less likely, a PHM.
There are two forms of the Gestational Trophoblastic Disease, Hydatidiform mole is a non-cancerous form, where a fetus may or may-not develop. Out of all the types of uterine cancers presently known, Hydatidiform Mole¬¬--commonly known as a “molar pregnancy”--affects one out of every 1, pregnancies (Hydatidiform Mole, ).Download