A study on animal testing

Animal testing

Electrocution may be used for cattle, sheep, swine, foxes, and mink after the animals are unconscious, often by a prior electrical stun. The Use of Animals in Medical Research, If those human subjects were normal and able to give free A study on animal testing informed consent to the experiment then this might not be morally objectionable.

An alternative, acceptable answer would be, none of those drugs because even drug D could cause damage to humans. The water is within 1 cm of the small flower pot bottom platform where the rat sits.

Animal experimentation up 73 percent, study says

But the argument is about whether the experiments are morally right or wrong. Gunshot may be used, but only in cases where a penetrating captive bolt may not be used. Larger mammals are rarely bred specifically for such studies due to their slow rate of reproduction, though some scientists take advantage of inbred domesticated animalssuch as dog or cattle breeds, for comparative purposes.

Leprosy is still prevalent in Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania, India, and Nepal, with overcases at the beginning of They both carefully measured the amount of "carbon dioxide and heat given off by a guinea pig as it breathed". To the undecided and non-prejudiced the answer is, of course, obvious.

Writing in the Winston-Salem A study on animal testing inSabin said, "Without the use of animals and human beings, it would have been impossible to acquire the important knowledge needed to prevent much suffering and premature death not only among humans but animals as well.

Roughly 15 years later, Behring announced such a mix suitable for human immunity which largely banished diphtheria from the scourges of humainkind.

Sedatives or anesthetics such as barbiturates can be A study on animal testing intravenouslyor inhalant anesthetics may be used. Drug D was taken by all the animals up to huge doses with no ill effect. The harm that will be done to the animals is certain to happen if the experiment is carried out The harm done to human beings by not doing the experiment is unknown because no-one knows how likely the experiment is to succeed or what benefits it might produce if it did succeed So the equation is completely useless as a way of deciding whether it is ethically acceptable to perform an experiment, because until the experiment is carried out, no-one can know the value of the benefit that it produces.

The possible benefits to humanity of performing the experiment are completely irrelevant to the morality of the case, because rights should never be violated except in obvious cases like self-defence.

This bleak result of deciding the morality of experimenting on animals on the basis of rights is probably why people always justify animal experiments on consequentialist grounds; by showing that the benefits to humanity justify the suffering of the animals involved.

In his unfinished utopian novel, New Atlantisscientist and philosopher Francis Bacon proposed a research center containing "parks and enclosures of all sorts of beasts and birds which we use Pithing inserting a tool into the base of the brain is usable on animals already unconscious.

Mice are the most commonly used vertebrate species because of their size, low cost, ease of handling, and fast reproduction rate. Waksman coined the term antibiotic with regards to these substances. On the subject of analgesics used to relieve pain, the Guide states "The selection of the most appropriate analgesic or anesthetic should reflect professional judgment as to which best meets clinical and humane requirements without compromising the scientific aspects of the research protocol".

It states "The ability to experience and respond to pain is widespread in the animal kingdom At the onset of sleep, the rat would either fall into the water only to clamber back to the pot to avoid drowning, or its nose would become submerged into the water shocking it back to an awakened state. Other animals also saw increases.

Certain domestic and wild animals have a natural propensity or predisposition for certain conditions that are also found in humans. Fruit flies, nematode worms, mice and rats together account for the vast majority, though small numbers of other species are used, ranging from sea slugs through to armadillos.

Animal shelters also supply the laboratories directly. Maceration grinding into small pieces is used on 1 day old chicks. Not all scientists are convinced that these tests are valid and useful. Justifying animal experiments Those in favour of animal experiments say that the good done to human beings outweighs the harm done to animals.

Whatever benefits animal experimentation is thought to hold in store for us, those very same benefits could be obtained through experimenting on humans instead of animals.

Drug A killed all the rats, mice and dogs. Genetic modification of animals to study disease. These experiments used bovine sources instead of dogs to improve the supply. In the United States and China, most primates are domestically purpose-bred, whereas in Europe the majority are imported purpose-bred.

Physical methods are also used, with or without sedation or anesthesia depending on the method.

History of animal testing

The animal can be made to inhale a gas, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxideby being placed in a chamber, or by use of a face mask, with or without prior sedation or anesthesia. Xenotransplantation Xenotransplantation research involves transplanting tissues or organs from one species to another, as a way to overcome the shortage of human organs for use in organ transplants.

Academic reviews of the topic are more equivocal, noting that although the argument that animals have at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings has strong support, [] some critics continue to question how reliably animal mental states can be determined.

Enos the space chimp before insertion into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in This rat is being deprived of restful sleep using a single platform "flower pot" technique. In the UK, just procedures were carried out on cats in Captive bolts may be used, typically on dogs, ruminants, horses, pigs and rabbits.

Experimenting on animals

Waksman would win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in for his discoveries in antibiotics.(Watson,Animal Testing p.9) It is necessary that the statistics of animal testing are revealed to those who have been misinformed or undereducated of the issue.

We will write a custom essay sample on A Case Study on Animal Testing specifically for you. The history of animal testing goes back to the writings of the Ancient Greeks in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE, with Aristotle (– BCE) and Erasistratus (– BCE) one of the first documented to perform experiments on animals.

Galen, a physician in 2nd-century Rome, dissected pigs and goats, and is known as the "Father of Vivisection.".

If animal testing is so unreliable, why does it continue? Despite this growing evidence that it is time for a change, effecting that change within a scientific community that has relied for decades on animal models as the "default method" for testing and research takes time and perseverance.

The study, in the Journal of Medical Ethics, found the number of animals tested rose from 1, in to 2, in in testing by.

About Animal Testing

Opponents of animal testing say that it is cruel and inhumane to experiment on animals, that alternative methods available to researchers can replace animal testing, and that animals are so different from human beings that research on animals often yields irrelevant results.

Database analysis more reliable than animal testing for toxic chemicals Study shows that computer algorithms could replace standard toxicology tests on animals.

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A study on animal testing
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